Why buy a CD when you can download it? An exploratory approach through the concept of appropriation

Since the domestic space has become one of the main cultural venues, the music industry (and especially the major majors) has gained considerable economic but also periodic weight. In France, as in other world markets [1] online shopping in Pakistan
[1]
France is the fifth largest market in the world after …, the record industry has experienced, since its creation, a development that could be described as cyclical: the whole history of the sector has been marked by crises immediately followed by technological innovations reviving the market. Nevertheless, it seems that at present, the order is reversed since it is a technological innovation that preceded and provoked a crisis (Blondeau, 1999): in fact, the sector is currently experiencing a deep structural movement due to bringing together music and Information and Communication Technologies, represented by the advent of the Internet. This association gave birth to digital music, that is to say to its dematerialization (to the extent that a music file downloaded on the Web has no physical existence) and also resulted in order piracy. worldwide due to illegal downloading of music. This piracy was achieved via Peer-to-Peer software [2]
[2]
P2P from now on., Or peer-to-peer communication, which means that two machines can legally communicate on a level playing field. Two variants of this system exist: the centralized P2P, symbolized by Napster, allowing the direct exchange of files via a search engine (Napster was considered responsible for fraud aid and forced to close in July 2001) and the decentralized P2P (Kazaa, Emule, …), in which the user himself becomes a server. It can thus download the music files present on the hard disk of another user, without the intermediary of the principal server. Legally, this approach is difficult to condemn because the sharing software is legal, only its use can be litigious. According to a study by the Recording Industry Association of America, nearly 8 billion music tracks were downloaded in 2006. The industry was upset:

at the economic level since the world market has seen a sharp decline in recent years (despite an improvement recorded in 2004),
at the level of the actors of the sector: introduction of new agents (such as the appearance of virtual shops selling music on the Internet), strengthening or conversely decreasing the competitive position of certain market players (the 4 majors that are Sony-BMG, Universal, Warner and EMI thus see their supremacy, 75% of the world market, questioned) …
at the level of the offer to the consumer: the latter can now consume music recorded on a material medium or on an intangible medium, bought in store or downloaded. The different opportunities for consumers to purchase recorded music are shown in Fig

Given the possibilities offered by this new market, we can legitimately wonder about the motivations that push an individual to buy a CD in the store when he could download it for free. In this context, our problem is to study the relationship between the individual and the recorded music, which raises the question of the appropriation of music by the consumer according to its support but also its distribution mode. How can the decision-making process, but also the consumption of music, be explained by appropriation? Does the latter, which underlies the notions of moral, psychological and emotional property, the same, depending on whether one consumes music with material support or on intangible media, downloaded or bought in stores?

3Our conceptual framework will develop around the concept of appropriation, which involves bringing a product or service into the personal sphere and making it clean. Coming from multiple disciplines of the social sciences, the concept of appropriation proves more and more used in marketing because it brings a new light on the relation between, on the one hand, an individual, and on the other hand a place, an experience, an object, …

4The exploratory approach will enable us to understand the practices of music consumers and to understand the link between the symbolic function of the medium used, the perception of the distribution mode and the mode of appropriation; the goal is toa enable the recording industries to respond to the problems posed by downloading on the Internet by means other than repression

As we saw earlier, an art object is authentic if the chain that connects it to its author has not been broken. A CD will, therefore, be considered authentic only if the signature of the artist was provided by the record company, thanks to the packaging of the object. However, when an individual downloads music illegally over the Internet, he clearly breaks the chain linking him to the music writer, since an illegally downloaded music file is not endorsed by the record companies. does not contain any element of the original packaging. However, as De Certeau (1980) points out, it is often assumed that “assimilate” necessarily means “to become like” and not “make one like” to what one is, to make it one’s own. We highlight here the creative capacity of the man who is able to act on the object and thus to adapt it to himself (De Certeau, 1980); rather than changing one’s own personality to conform to the object, man can act upon the object so that it becomes like the individual. The subject builds a zone of freedom around the object in order to appropriate it. We can thus compare making his own CD to work on the customization of clothing … or how to transform a standard object to develop a unique style. He will be able to enjoy the autonomy he builds (Ladwein, 2003).

45

“I have a typical Excel document that is exactly the size of a CD sleeve and that I just have to fill in with the titles of the CD I just downloaded. I print it, I cut it and presto! I have my own wallet.
Figure 4 summarizes our different reflections. By quantifying the different behaviors highlighted, this synthetic table makes it possible to distinguish the majority positions from the minority positions. The downloaders value the download as much for its fun and practical aspect. For CD buyers, the authentic dimension of the object is the first lever of ownership. In addition, downloading individuals who also continue to buy CDs appropriate their music on the one hand by the insertion of P2P in their system of domestic objects and on the other hand by the authenticity of the CD bought in stores .

Figure 4
Figure 4
Conclusion
47The disk industry is currently undergoing profound upheaval, the origin of which is the coming together of two domains: recorded music and information and communication technologies. From this association was born digital music, that is to say a dematerialized music, without physical support as well as a new distribution channel of music, the Internet. The consumer can now arbitrate between music with hardware and non-material support, store-bought or downloaded from the web. The interest of reflecting on the relation between the individual and the recorded music through the symbolic function of the medium and also the perception of the distribution mode seems particularly important for understanding the way in which this is done. arbitration.

When an individual obtains music recorded on a physical medium (a CD or other), the appropriation, that is to say, its setting in a domestic context, will rather pass by this authentic object that the individual goes value. From this point of view, one would be tempted to think that the CD could follow the example of vinyl that is still selling and has become a real collector’s item, almost 60 years after the appearance of the first LP.

49When we are in the digital sphere, the appropriation of downloaded music will go through the tools that allow access to files (P2P software that has been domesticated by a diversion of their uses) and reading files (Ipod, mobile phone, …); which leads us to consider recorded music as a service.

50More than on the physical CD, the business model of the industry could then move towards concerts or derivative products on the artist. Until now, it was the concerts that allowed the artist to promote his record, the primary source of income. Now, it seems that the order is being reversed since it is the record that will promote the concerts of the artist and its derivatives.

In the face of this new situation, the majors first observed a wait-and-see attitude partly explained by their initial doubts about digital music, by their desire to solve the problems of the portability of digital music and of the security of online transactions before investing, as well as their large size slowing down the responsiveness. Record companies are now trying to take advantage of the craze for dematà © music
[3]
The repression that, as shown by Sinha and Mandel (2008), ne …, that is to say, through market channels.

After presenting our theoretical framework, that of appropriation, and the methodological approach adopted, we will discuss in a second part the digital context towards which the field of recorded music seems to be destined. Finally, as a third part, we will highlight the elements that would tend to push the individual to buy a CD.

1 – The theoretical framework of the appropriation and the methodological orientations
1.1 – The concept of appropriation
The term appropriation comes from the Latin appropriate which means to make one’s own destination, to adapt, to confirm. The action of appropriating means the idea of attributing oneself, of giving oneself the property of something and this, in a broader perspective than the simple legal dimension.

7According to Serfaty-Garzon (2003), the sociological use of the concept of appropriation derives from Marx’s work. The appropriation is done through the internalization of knowledge and abilities. It was after Marx’s work that the concept of appropriation was studied in psychology, general at first, thanks to the different contributions of Leontiev. Appropriation is then defined as a begetting of the individual that is realized in a historical continuity of appropriation of his heritage. In environmental psychology, appropriation consists of action of the subject on his environment. “This on-site control system encompasses the forms and types of intervention on space that translate into possession and attachment relationships” (Fischer, 1997). It is a way of materializing a part of his mental universe in the surrounding space in order to familiarize him and feel safe.

8Integrated in the sphere of marketing for its explanatory capacity of certain consumption behaviors, the concept of appropriation was approached mainly in five large fields (figure 2): the appropriation of commercial space, a brand, a consumer experience, an object/product and finally a new technology.

Figure 2
Figure 2
Figure 2
9For Cova and Cova (2001), these domains have four common dimensions that characterize the appropriation function:

The action of making one’s own,
Having the right skills to carry out the act of appropriation,
The feeling of enjoyment in relation to things and the world,
The power that the individual acquires over the object and the non-possessors of it.
However, a criterion that can allow the marketing to distinguish and to decline the different processes of appropriation concerns the initiating source of the mechanism: is it an active or reactive process on the part of the consumer? The question is whether the appropriation comes from the consumer himself who, without any external incentive, personalizes his environment or if the appropriation is suggested by the provider. We quickly see the managerial contributions that result, especially in the second category.
In light of these different developments, it was now necessary to confront our field of investigation, that of consumption.

Given the possibilities offered by this new market, we can legitimately wonder about the motivations that push an individual to buy a CD in the store when he could download it for free. In this context, our problem is to study the relationship between the individual and the recorded music, which raises the question of the appropriation of music by the consumer according to its support but also its distribution mode. How can the decision-making process, but also the consumption of music, be explained by appropriation? Does the latter, which underlies the notions of moral, psychological and emotional property, the same, depending on whether one consumes music with material support or on intangible media, downloaded or bought in stores?

3Our conceptual framework will develop around the concept of appropriation, which involves bringing a product or service into the personal sphere and making it clean. Coming from multiple disciplines of the social sciences, the concept of appropriation proves more and more used in marketing because it brings a new light on the relation between, on the one hand, an individual, and on the other hand a place, an experience, an object, …

4The exploratory approach will enable us to understand the practices of music consumers and to understand the link between the symbolic function of the medium used, the perception of the distribution mode and the mode of appropriation; the goal being to enable the recording industries to respond to the problems posed by downloading on the Internet by means other than repression [3]
[3]
The repression that, as shown by Sinha and Mandel (2008), ne …, that is to say, through market channels.

After presenting our theoretical framework, that of appropriation, and the methodological approach adopted, we will discuss in a second part the digital context towards which the field of recorded music seems to be destined. Finally, as a third part, we will highlight the elements that would tend to push the individual to buy a CD.

1 – The theoretical framework of the appropriation and the methodological orientations
1.1 – The concept of appropriation
The term appropriation comes from the Latin appropriate which means to make one’s own destination, to adapt, to conform. The action of appropriating means the idea of attributing oneself, of giving oneself the property of something and this, in a broader perspective than the simple legal dimension.

7According to Serfaty-Garzon (2003), the sociological use of the concept of appropriation derives from Marx’s work. The appropriation is done through the internalization of knowledge and abilities. It was after Marx’s work that the concept of appropriation was studied in psychology, general at first, thanks to the different contributions of Leontiev. Appropriation is then defined as a begetting of the individual that is realized in a historical continuity of appropriation of his heritage. In environmental psychology, appropriation consists of action of the subject on his environment. “This on-site control system encompasses the forms and types of intervention on space that translate into possession and attachment relationships” (Fischer, 1997). It is a way of materializing a part of his mental universe in the surrounding space in order to familiarize him and feel safe.

8Integrated in the sphere of marketing for its explanatory capacity of certain consumption behaviors, the concept of appropriation was approached mainly in five large fields (figure 2): the appropriation of commercial space, a brand, a consumer experience, an object/product and finally a new technology.

Figure 2
Figure 2
Figure 2
9For Cova and Cova (2001), these domains have four common dimensions that characterize the appropriation function:

The action of making one’s own,
Having the right skills to carry out the act of appropriation,
The feeling of enjoyment in relation to things and the world,
The power that the individual acquires over the object and the non-possessors of it.
However, a criterion that can allow the marketing to distinguish and to decline the different processes of appropriation concerns the initiating source of the mechanism: is it an active or reactive process on the part of the consumer? The question is whether the appropriation comes from the consumer himself who, without any external incentive, personalizes his environment or if the appropriation is suggested by the provider. We quickly see the managerial contributions that result, especially in the second category.
In the light of these different developments, it was now necessary to confront our field of investigation, that of consumption.

For the consumers of music recorded on a physical medium, the appropriation passes mainly by the object and its authentic aspects, socializers and identity builders.

3.1 – Appropriation by the authentic
The first factor of appropriation of music recorded on a physical medium is relative to the imagination of the individual: it is about authenticity. According to Camus (2002), “perceived market authenticity is a product-specific characteristic that derives from the cognitive, affective, and conative activity.” Three fundamental conditions must be met: the origin of the product must be identified, the origin of the product must conform to its representation and the nature of the product must be preserved throughout the process from the origin of the goods to its reception point. For Baudrillard (1968), authenticity corresponds to the ability to trace back to the social origin of the object, to its author. In the field of art, the advantage of knowing the author of a work will reside in the understanding of the artistic intentionality and sincerity implemented (Heinich, 1991).

30

“The notion of CD is important. It’s a whole. I think that ‘real artists’ leave nothing to chance. The order of the songs on the album is not a coincidence. The CD cover is not a coincidence. The illustrations in the booklet are not a coincidence, just put there to look good. The artist brings particular care so that it is coherent. It’s thought to bring something. I try to feel what the artist felt. ”
31Thus, for a CD, DVD or any other medium that may contain recorded music to have an authentic character, there must be a link between the artist who created the work at the beginning of the line and the final consumer at the end of the chain. For Bessy and Chateauraynaud (1995), the mediation between the person and the work is realized through copyrights. However, the certifying body that is able to ensure a relationship between the creation phase and the consumption phase, which guarantees the collection of copyrights to artists and that will preserve the origin of the CD to its point of reception is the record company. She will ensure the signature of the work by the artist and thus confer a certain authenticity to the CD. Even if the artistic creation is unique, this one can be reproducible: the record companies then produce standardized products but which will become material objects marked with the “seal of veracity” (Warnier and Rosselin, 1996). Authentic merchandise is not synonymous with uniqueness but seems rather representative of an original (Camus, 2002). The authenticity of the CD stems in particular from the booklet, photos, dedications or lyrics of songs, that is to say the packaging of the product. “Upstream of consumption, distribution incorporates authentication processes by producing advertising images, packaging products, and places where they are exposed to public scrutiny” (Warnier and Rosselin, 1996). The packaging will guarantee the origin and integrity of the product.

32

“I’m very attached to CDs, I like the format, I like to flip through the booklet, read the lyrics while listening to the disc, I like the reflections of the light on the disc when I leave one of its box . It’s a bit of sharp collection! “.
33The authenticity thus comes from the signature of the work by the record companies but also from the context in which one obtains the object. This is what Camus (2002) calls “situational authentication”. Indeed, the environment in which the product will be purchased will play a significant role in the perception of the product by the consumer. This is especially true for individuals who buy musical items in stores rather than by mail order.

34

“I like the CD of course but I also like the gesture of purchase. I like hanging out in record stores, rummaging through bins looking for a great opportunity. I can spend hours in a shop to find the rare pearl.
3.2 – The socializing musical object
The effort of appropriation seems to be proportional to what has been invested in procuring music: money, of course, but also time and physical or mental energy. Thus, the purchase of a CD (or to a lesser extent, the paid download of music) is very often preceded by a search for information on the artist through various means: Internet, press, radio, advice from friends, … The fact that one has invested in the object then leads the individual to communicate on it. The CD is no longer just a form, it’s a language: we show them to our friends, we discuss them, we expose them in a nightclub standing out prominently in the living room, … They convey mean

As we saw earlier, an art object is authentic if the chain that connects it to its author has not been broken. A CD will, therefore, be considered authentic only if the signature of the artist was provided by the record company, thanks to the packaging of the object. However, when an individual downloads music illegally over the Internet, he clearly breaks the chain linking him to the music writer, since an illegally downloaded music file is not endorsed by the record companies. does not contain any element of the original packaging. However, as De Certeau (1980) points out, it is often assumed that “assimilate” necessarily means “to become like” and not “make one like” to what one is, to make it one’s own. We highlight here the creative capacity of the man who is able to act on the object and thus to adapt it to himself (De Certeau, 1980); rather than changing one’s own personality to conform to the object, man can act upon the object so that it becomes like the individual. The subject builds a zone of freedom around the object in order to appropriate it. We can thus compare making his own CD to work on the customization of clothing … or how to transform a standard object to develop a unique style. He will be able to enjoy the autonomy he builds (Ladwein, 2003).

45

“I have a typical Excel document that is exactly the size of a CD sleeve and that I just have to fill in with the titles of the CD I just downloaded. I print it, I cut it and presto! I have my own wallet.
Figure 4 summarizes our different reflections. By quantifying the different behaviors highlighted, this synthetic table makes it possible to distinguish the majority positions from the minority positions. The downloaders value the download as much for its fun and practical aspect. For CD buyers, the authentic dimension of the object is the first lever of ownership. In addition, downloading individuals who also continue to buy CDs appropriate their music on the one hand by the insertion of P2P in their system of domestic objects and on the other hand by the authenticity of the CD bought in stores.

Figure 4
Figure 4
Conclusion
47The disk industry is currently undergoing profound upheaval, the origin of which is the coming together of two domains: recorded music and information and communication technologies. From this association was born digital music, that is to say a dematerialized music, without physical support as well as a new distribution channel of music, the Internet. The consumer can now arbitrate between music with hardware and non-material support, store-bought or downloaded from the web. The interest of reflecting on the relation between the individual and the recorded music through the symbolic function of the medium and also the perception of the distribution mode seems particularly important for understanding the way in which this is done. arbitration.

When an individual obtains music recorded on a physical medium (a CD or other), the appropriation, that is to say, its setting in the domestic context, will rather pass by this authentic object that the individual goes value. From this point of view, one would be tempted to think that the CD could follow the example of vinyl that is still selling and has become a real collector’s item, almost 60 years after the appearance of the first LP.

49When we are in the digital sphere, the appropriation of downloaded music will go through the tools that allow access to files (P2P software that has been domesticated by a diversion of their uses) and reading files (iPod, mobile phone, …); which leads us to consider recorded music as a service.

50More than on the physical CD, the business model of the industry could then move towards concerts or derivative products on the artist. Until now, it was the concerts that allowed the artist to promote his record, the primary source of income. Now, it seems that the order is being reversed since it is the record that will promote the concerts of the artist and its derivatives.

In the face of this new situation, the majors first observed a wait-and-see attitude partly explained by their initial doubts about digital music, by their desire to solve the problems of the portability of digital music and of the security of online transactions before investing, as well as their large size slowing down the responsiveness. Record companies are now trying to take advantage of the craze for dematà © music

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